On 2nd November 2021, the Friends of Multilateralism Group (FMG) has organized an online brainstorming on the Appellate Body of the WTO. Gabrielle Marceau, Senior Counsellor in the Research Division (ERSD) of the WTO Secretariat moderated this session.


Jennifer Hillman, former member of the Appellate Body and former General Counsel at the Office of the United States Trade Representative, Henry Gao, professor at Singapore Management University, Peter Van den Bossche, Director of Studies of the World Trade Institute and former member of the Appellate Body, and James Bacchus, former Chairman of the Appellate Body and former member of the Congress of the United States shared their insights and suggestions on the Appellate Body crisis and the upcoming MC12. Alan Wolff, FMG member and former Deputy Director-General of the WTO shared his comments as discussant.


Over 70 participants joined the brainstorming, including members of FMG, Friends of FMG and Punta del Este Group (PEG), Ambassadors/DPRs of WTO members, offcials at the WTO Secretariat and representatives from related international organizations, think tanks and universities.


Recording of this session can be viewed via: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5eFscljoL2Y.



Opening Remarks

Speaker: Xiankun Lu (FMG)



Moderator: Gabrielle Marceau

14:35-14:45 Speaker: Jennifer Hillman
14:45-14:55 Speaker:  Peter Van den Bossche
14:55-15:05 Speaker: Henry Gao
15:05-15:15 Speaker: James Bacchus
15:15-15:23 Discussant: Alan Wolff (FMG)


Moderator:  Gabrielle Marceau

Annex 1: Programme of this session



Annex 2: List of confirmed participants

Confirmed Participants


1.FMG/FFMG/PEG members

Mercedes Araoz, FMG

Clemens Boonekamp, FMG

Daniel Crosby, FMG

Jonathan Fried, FMG

Stuart Harbinson, FMG

Alejandro Jara, FMG

Xiankun Lu, FMG

Hamid Mamdouh, FMG

Mario Matus, FMG&PEG

Xinquan Tu, FMG

Alan Wolff, FMG

Olaf Wientzek, FFMG


2.WTO missions

Mexico: Angel Villalobos, Ambassador

Russia: Dmitry Lyakishev, Ambassador

Singapore: Tan Hung Seng, Ambassador

EU: Hiddo Houben, DPR

Mexico: Ismael Ortiz, DPR

Singapore: Darryl Leong, DPR

Turkey: Bahar Dogan, DPR


3.WTO Secretariat

Anabel Gonzalez, Deputy Director-General

Jean-Marie Paugam, Deputy Director-General

Werner Zdouc, Director, Knowledge and Information Management, Academic Outreach and WTO Chairs Programme


4.International organizations

Damien Bruckard, ICC

Brad McDonald, IMF

Aditi Sara Verghese, WEF


5.Think tanks

Bill Reinsch, PIIE

Jeff Schott, PIIE

Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, ECIPE



Andre Sapir, Université Libre de Bruxelles

Christian Bluth, European University Institute